The Polyglot Programming Project gathers specifications for short scripts (programs), which are then written in multiple programming languages such as java, perl, php, python, rebol, ruby, etc.
Each script (or program) is a short recipe, phrase, or set of phrases. Scripts are normally less than 10 lines of code. Scripts are almost always less than 48 lines of code. However, the goal is to write the same script (matching the same specification) in all languages.
The goal is provide hundreds (maybe even thousands) of short specifications (program function descriptions), and then write a script that performs the function, and translations of that same script into every other popular language.
So it's the same concept as saying:
print "Hello, world!"
in many computer languages, however,with the goal of translating many other phrases.
In many ways, we are similar to the PLEAC project (which is translating the Perl Cookbook into many other computer languages) --but we are focused on shorter recipes and phrases.