JMRTD is a free implementation of the Machine Readable Travel Document (MRTD) standards as specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The electronic passport (or "ePassport"), which by now has been introduced in many countries, is an implementation of these standards.
Both a card side application (the "passport applet") and a host side API for accessing electronic passports are developed. The passport applet makes it possible to create your own passports (in case you're starting your own country). The applet is written in Java Card.
The host side API makes it possible to authenticate with a passport and read the information on the chip. The host side API is written in Java.