The Mersenne twister is a pseudorandom number generator developed by Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura that is based on a matrix linear recurrence over a finite binary field. It provides for fast generation of very high quality pseudorandom numbers
This library uses SFMT, the SIMD-oriented Fast Mersenne Twister, a variant of Mersenne Twister that is much faster than the original. It is designed to be fast when it runs on 128-bit SIMD. It can be compiled with either SSE2 and PowerPC AltiVec support, to take advantage of these instructions.
By default the period of the function is 2^19937-1, however, you can compile in other defaults. Note that this algorithm on its own is not cryptographically secure.
For more information about the algorithm and implementation, see the SFMT homepage,
and, Mutsuo Saito and Makoto Matsumoto, SIMD-oriented Fast Mersenne Twister: a 128-bit Pseudorandom Number Generator, in the Proceedings of MCQMC2006, here: