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Analyzed about 10 hours ago. based on code collected 1 day ago.
Posted 6 months ago
CPU mediatek 7621AT - a ramips based cpu with 2 cores RAM: winbond w632... (too small to read ;) flash: 128 MByte NAND winbond w29n01hvsinf wifi: ax with a mt7915dan (2T2R 2.4 Ghz, 2T2R 5Ghz) + mt7975dn
Posted about 1 year ago
I was asked to take a look on a supermicro server which has been damaged by an firmware update. It was an Supermicro X10DRW-IT. The firmware update was tried by USB storage, but somehow failed. After powering the system, it went like this: On with ... [More] all fans for 5 sec Off for 5 sec On with all fans for 5 sec [..] However it seems the IPMI is still booting through and won't be disconnected from the power as the remaining mainboard does, but the IPMI doesn't accept any bios update anymore. As preparation I read up on the coreboot support for the Supermicro X10SLM+-F [0] The bios chip is hidden under the raid controller if you've one. First I've taken a look on the BIOS flash. To read the bios flash out, I've used a raspberry pi 3 with a SOIC-8 clip using the SPI bus. Required tools: raspberry pi with raspian (apt-get install flashrom) some wire cables to the SOIC8 test clip a SOIC-8 test clip (either the cheap ones from aliexpress or the expensive, high quality pomona 5250 [1]). How you have to connect the SPI SOIC chip is described in [2]. Pin 1 of the SPI chip is where the small hole is on the. Ensure you Disconnect both power supplies from the mainboard. sudo flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=1000 -r bios sudo flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=1000 -r bios2 sha256sum bios bios2 # ensure the checksum is equal, to ensure you read real things. strings -n 16 bios # try to get some strings out of it, ensure you not only read 0xffff or 0x0000. Next I downloaded the supermicro bios update. Here you can find: tree . . ├── DOS │   ├── AFUDOSU.SMC │   ├── CHOICE.SMC │   ├── FDT.smc │   ├── FLASH.BAT │   ├── Readme for X10 AMI BIOS-DOS+UEFI.txt │   └── X10DRW9.B22 └── UEFI ├── Readme for X10 AMI BIOS-DOS+UEFI.txt ├── X10DRW9.B22 ├── afuefi.smc ├── fdt.smc └── flash.nsh ls -al X10DRW9.B22 -rw------- 1 lynxis users 16777216 Nov 22 16:07 X10DRW9.B22 Sound good, it's size is exact 16 MB, the same size as the bios flash. file also tell me what it is. file X10DRW9.B22 X10DRW9.B22: Intel serial flash for PCH ROM Great we found a firmware image with ifd (intel firmware descriptor). Now I've looked on the BIOS backup we read with the raspberry pi. I used hexdump -C bios to see if the end contains a lot of 1s (or 0xffff in hex). Why? Because if you want to write a SPI flash, you can not just write to it like a hard drive. SPI flash chips are organised in blocks. A block is usally 64 kbyte. A single bit on a flash chip can only be written to a 0. If you want to write a single bit with a 1 where a 0 was before (0 -> 1), you've to erase the whole block, not only the address. An erase blocked is full of 1. To find out, if we have a half written flash, we can try to look on the end of the flash if there are a lot of 1s (or 0xffffffff). hexdump -C is showing it quite nice 00c2ee20 4d 50 44 54 00 01 00 00 10 00 00 00 00 00 10 00 |MPDT............| 00c2ee30 ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff ff |................| * 01000000 This means, it only written up to 0x00c2ee30 (12.2 MB). Now we can look into the downloaded image, if it looks similiar. Maybe here starts configuration data. But no, it's missing some data here. Next task is to flash the bios section. Bios section? The intel firmware description contains section. Similiar to a partition layout on a hard drive. On this platform there are 3 different sections 00000000:00000fff fd 00400000:00ffffff bios 00011000:003fffff me fd stands for firmware descriptor bios stands for the x86 firmware or UEFI me for the management engine (also called on servers "Server Platform Services") To flash only the partition you either have to use a recent flashrom version (at least 1.0) or you've to extract the layout file using the ifdtool (from coreboot). You can also use the last code snipped as layout. flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=1000 -l layout -i bios -w X10DRW9.B22 It verifies it after writing to it. But still it doesn't work. My next thought was maybe the IPMI flash got damaged as well. The SPI flash of the IPMI is close by. So let's have a look. I was lucky to also have a SOIC-16 test clip available. I did the same procedure on the IPMI flash. However the flashrom in raspian was too old. The flash chip wasn't known to this version flashrom. I had to compile it myself. sudo apt install git build-essential git clone https://review.coreboot.org/flashrom.git cd flashrom make CONFIG_ENABLE_LIBPCI_PROGRAMMERS=no CONFIG_ENABLE_LIBUSB1_PROGRAMMERS=no ./flashrom -p linux_spi:dev=/dev/spidev0.0,spispeed=1000 -r ipmi But it looks good so far. Running binwalk on it shows us binwalk ipmi DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL DESCRIPTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 103328 0x193A0 CRC32 polynomial table, little endian 1048576 0x100000 JFFS2 filesystem, little endian 4194304 0x400000 CramFS filesystem, little endian, size: 15216640, version 2, sorted_dirs, CRC 0xB1031FF3, edition 0, 8613 blocks, 1099 files 20971520 0x1400000 uImage header, header size: 64 bytes, header CRC: 0x3F1E0DA5, created: 2019-11-15 08:36:11, image size: 1537512 bytes, Data Address: 0x40008000, Entry Point: 0x40008000, data CRC: 0x310498CA, OS: Linux, CPU: ARM, image type: OS Kernel Image, compression type: gzip, image name: "21400000" 20971584 0x1400040 gzip compressed data, maximum compression, has original file name: "linux.bin", from Unix, last modified: 2019-11-15 07:25:15 24117248 0x1700000 CramFS filesystem, little endian, size: 7458816, version 2, sorted_dirs, CRC 0xF5B9463B, edition 0, 3108 blocks, 466 files Looks also good, however I want to be sure, it's the fine. I did first a backup, second overwritten with a file from the IPMI firmware update. Still no change. So what's wrong here? Is the power management controller damaged? The power supply are controller digital via I2C. Maybe it's somehow telling me something is wrong? I was lucky, I didn't had a i2c sniffer around, otherwise I would have digged into it. I nearly gave it up, before I found out, that the backup file didn't worked with ifdtool. I exported the layout using the firmware update file, and not with the backup file. Usually firmware updates do not touch the ifd. It seems server boards are different. So the backup didn't contained an ifd. It wasn't only damaged in the end, also in the beginning. Not sure if this is a safety feature of the update. It might ensure at the beginning of an update the partial flash wouldn't be recognized as a working image. It's not a good thing booting a half working image. I flashed the bios firmware update image and the board is back. To be sure, I flashed the ipmi backup on the SPI chip. TLDR; So the fast way to recover a partial bios, do a backup first! Then flash the full image. At least for this generation it works. Note: Depending on your specific hardware setup (cable length, test clip) you can increase or decrease the spispeed. spispeed=10000 => 10 MHz should be still ok. You'll notice the wrong spispeed if the reading or flashing fails. [0] https://doc.coreboot.org/mainboard/supermicro/x10slm-f.html [1] https://www.pomonaelectronics.com/products/test-clips/soic-clip-8-pin [2] https://github.com/bibanon/Coreboot-ThinkPads/wiki/Hardware-Flashing-with-Raspberry-Pi [Less]
Posted over 1 year ago
Similiar to lolamby' regular post on his free software contribution, I want to start a similiar post. The big chunk of the December I prepared together with the GSM team the celluar network at the 36c3 (36. Chaos Communication Congress). Every year ... [More] we're building our own celluar network using free software project osmocom & open5gs. Osmocom is a community project around mobile communication. We used osmocom to run our core network (CN) of our 2G and 3G network. Open5gs is our LTE CN, which was interconnected to the osmocom CN. Here is a overview, every buble is an own daemon. The 36c3 was a nice testing ground. We had to extend a couple of the services (e.g. osmomsc, osmogsup2dia, osmohnbgw). While the event we also like to enjoy the congress, so this is our excuse to not upstream our patches right a away. However we push our branches as it is to https://git.osmocom.org. Upstreaming will be more seen in January. [Less]
Posted over 1 year ago
Last week I visited thomasdotwtf from eventphone who has a jura coffee machine. We took one evening to look into it, how easy it is, to use a generic BLE device like a raspberry pi to control it. He has a Jura Z8 Automatic Coffee Machine which ... [More] supports an IOS/Android app via Bluetooh LE. Jura released (at least) two different apps to control it. pl.mkssystems.juracoffee.household (Jura Coffee) ch.toptronic.joe (J.O.E.) Both apps supports ordering, changing properties of a coffee (e.g. how much water do you want to have or how much coffee should be in there?). mkssystems.pl seems to went out-of-service, but the internet archive still have an old version and they show a lot of coffee machine related products. As well as a small blue device [1]. This is the BlueFrog a bluetooth dongle to control Jura coffee machines. What can you do with the Apps? Configure your Coffee Produce a Coffee Statistics Firmware updates How we looked into? bluetooth packettrace: We used the android btsnoop.log to retrieve a packet trace which we loaded into wireshark. decompiled with different tools the .apk loaded the source code into android studio What we found out? The J.O.E. application is using XML files to be configured for the different coffee machines. The XML defines products (e.g. a coffee, a green tea, ...), there are properties (e.g. how much coffee should be produced), statistics and settings. The article number defines the XML file to be used. A firmware process including the update urls and the new firmware. We tried to find the same commands which should work on the RS232/serial in the bluetooth packet trace, but there wasn't any. After looking further in the code, we found a lot UUIDs for characteristics including a human readable name. We discovered also an "encryption" method which uses 2x hardcoded keys as well an additional input of 8 bit from the BLE advertisment. The encryption look like a static key. In the BLE advertisment, there are manufactoring data. In our case, the manufactoring data contains 27 bytes. If 16 bit will be used, it's little endian. manufactoring data as hex (27 byte): aa 05 06 03 d73a yyyy xxxx 5836 4435 01 c0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 aa: key 05: BlueFrog Major Version 06: BlueFrog Minor Version 03: unused (maybe Patch Version?) d73a: article number (the specific type of the machine) yyyy: machine number xxxx: serial number 5836: production date (Feb. 2017) 4435: production date UHCI (does UHCI means the bluefrog?) (Okt. 2016) 01: unused c0: bitmask, define supported features The production dates can be decoded and also validated using the application where it's shown in the connection fragment: days: (i & 31) month: ((i & 480) >> 5) year: ((i & 65024) >> 9) + 1990; What to do next? Write a decrypt function which can parse pcap files and shows the message or write a dissector (lua) for wireshark with decryption function. Find out how to map the XML files into commands towards the BlueFrog. Bluetooth Interface The good thing of BLE is, it's standarzied in the communication. BLE uses Bluetooth Attribute Protocol to communicate. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol uses services and characteristics. A service is an object which can hold multiple characteristics. A characteristic can support one or more of the following operations read, write, notification, indication. Every service has a UUID as well a characteristic has a UUID. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol has it's own methods to discover avaiable services and characterics. For more information please take a closer look into Bluetooth Low Energy. As a general BLE device, the BlueFrog annouce itself on the BLE. > hcitool lescan LE Scan ... C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 TT214H BlueFrog > HCI Event: LE Meta Event (0x3e) plen 43 #8 [hci0] 8.466202 LE Advertising Report (0x02) Num reports: 1 Event type: Scan response - SCAN_RSP (0x04) Address type: Random (0x01) Address: C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 (Static) Data length: 31 Company: Ingenieur-Systemgruppe Zahn GmbH (171) Data: aa050603d73a080402005836443501c00000000000000000000000 RSSI: -78 dBm (0xb2) And further more we can also look for the services and characteristics via the gatttool. > gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --services -t random attr handle = 0x0001, end grp handle = 0x0007 uuid: 00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb attr handle = 0x0008, end grp handle = 0x0008 uuid: 00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb attr handle = 0x0009, end grp handle = 0x0033 uuid: 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 attr handle = 0x0034, end grp handle = 0x003a uuid: 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 attr handle = 0x003b, end grp handle = 0xffff uuid: 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 > gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --characteristics -t random handle = 0x0002, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0003, uuid = 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x0004, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0005, uuid = 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x0006, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0007, uuid = 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x000a, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x000b, uuid = 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x000d, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x000e, uuid = 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0010, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0011, uuid = 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0013, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0014, uuid = 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0016, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0017, uuid = 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0019, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001a, uuid = 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x001c, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001d, uuid = 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x001f, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0020, uuid = 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0022, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0023, uuid = 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0025, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0026, uuid = 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0028, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0029, uuid = 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x002b, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002c, uuid = 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x002e, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002f, uuid = 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0031, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0032, uuid = 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0035, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0036, uuid = 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0038, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0039, uuid = 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x003c, char properties = 0x04, char value handle = 0x003d, uuid = 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 handle = 0x003e, char properties = 0x18, char value handle = 0x003f, uuid = 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Bluetooth Services and Characteristics service table start end uuid name   0x0001 0x0007 0x1800 Generic Access Profile   0x0008 0x0008 0x1801 Generic Attribute Profile   0x0009 0x0033 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710     0x0034 0x003a 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710     0X003b 0xffff 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123     Generic Access Profile (GAP) 0x0001 .. 0x0007 handle value handle properties uuid description 0x0002 0x0003 RW (0xa) 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   0x0004 0x0005 R (0x2) 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   0x0006 0x0007 R (0x2) 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0009 .. 0x0033a handle value handle properties uuid description 0x000a 0x000b R (0x2) 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Machine Status 0x000d 0x000e W (0x8) 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Start 0x0010 0x0011 W (0x8) 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control 0x0013 0x0014 W (0x8) 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Update Product Progress 0x0016 0x0017 RW (0xa) 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Progress 0x0019 0x001a R (0x2) 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 About 0x001c 0x001d R (0x2) 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x001f 0x0020 RW (0xa) 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0022 0x0023 RW (0xa) 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0025 0x0026 RW (0xa) 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics command 0x0028 0x0029 R (0x2) 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics data 0x002b 0x002c R (0x2) 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x002e 0x002f R (0x2) 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0031 0x0032 R (0x2) 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control Response 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0034 .. 0x003a handle value handle properties uuid description 0x0035 0x0036 R (0x2) 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0038 0x0039 W (0x8) 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   Nordic DFU 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 0x003b .. 0xffff handle value handle properties uuid description 0x003c 0x003d W- (0x4) 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_PACKET_CHARACTERISTI 0x003e 0x003f W N (0x18) 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_CONTROL_POINT_CHARACTERISTIC R means read W mean write with response W- means write without response N means notification Additional sources [1] https://www.thomas-electronic-online-shop.de/JURA-Smart-Connect [2] https://forum.fhem.de/index.php?topic=76957.0 [3] https://community.home-assistant.io/t/control-your-jura-coffee-machine/26604 [4] https://gitlab.com/Blueforcer/HA2JURA/snippets/1674496 [5] https://github.com/hn/jura-coffee-machine [6] https://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.nordic.infocenter.sdk5.v15.3.0%2Flib_dfu_transport_ble.html [Less]
Posted over 1 year ago
Last week I visited thomasdotwtf from eventphone who has a jura coffe machine. We took one evening to look into it, how easy it is, to use a generic BLE device like a raspberry pi to control it. He has a Jura Z8 Automatic Coffee Machine which ... [More] supports an IOS/Android app via Bluetooh LE. Jura released (at least) two different apps to control it. pl.mkssystems.juracoffee.household (Jura Coffee) ch.toptronic.joe (J.O.E.) Both apps supports ordering, changing properties of a coffee (e.g. how much water do you want to have or how much coffee should be in there?). mkssystems.pl seems to went out-of-service, but the internet archive still have an old version and they show a lot of coffe machine related products. As well as a small blue device [1]. This is the BlueFrog a bluetooth dongle to control Jura coffe machines. What can you do with the Apps? Configure your Coffee Produce a Coffee Statistics Firmware updates How we looked into? bluetooth packettrace: We used the android btsnoop.log to retrieve a packet trace which we loaded into wireshark. decompiled with different tools the .apk loaded the source code into android studio What we found out? The J.O.E. application is using XML files to be configured for the different coffe machines. The XML defines products (e.g. a coffee, a green tea, ...), there are properties (e.g. how much coffe should be produced), statistics and settings. The article number defines the XML file to be used. A firmware process including the update urls and the new firmware. We tried to find the same commands which should work on the RS232/serial in the bluetooth packet trace, but there wasn't any. After looking further in the code, we found a lot UUIDs for characteristics including a human readable name. We discovered also an "encryption" method which uses 2x hardcoded keys as well an additional input of 8 bit from the BLE advertisment. The encryption look like a static key. In the BLE advertisment, there are manufactoring data. In our case, the manufactoring data contains 27 bytes. If 16 bit will be used, it's little endian. manufactoring data as hex (27 byte): aa 05 06 03 d73a yyyy xxxx 5836 4435 01 c0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 aa: key 05: BlueFrog Major Version 06: BlueFrog Minor Version 03: unused (maybe Patch Version?) d73a: article number (the specific type of the machine) yyyy: machine number xxxx: serial number 5836: production date (Feb. 2017) 4435: production date UHCI (does UHCI means the bluefrog?) (Okt. 2016) 01: unused c0: bitmask, define supported features The production dates can be decoded and also validated using the application where it's shown in the connection fragment: days: (i & 31) month: ((i & 480) >> 5) year: ((i & 65024) >> 9) + 1990; What to do next? Write a decrypt function which can parse pcap files and shows the message or write a dissector (lua) for wireshark with decryption function. Find out how to map the XML files into commands towards the BlueFrog. Bluetooth Interface The good thing of BLE is, it's standarzied in the communication. BLE uses Bluetooth Attribute Protocol to communicate. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol uses services and characteristics. A service is an object which can hold multiple characteristics. A characteristic can support one or more of the following operations read, write, notification, indication. Every service has a UUID as well a characteristic has a UUID. The Bluetooth Attribute Protocol has it's own methods to discover avaiable services and characterics. For more information please take a closer look into Bluetooth Low Energy. As a general BLE device, the BlueFrog annouce itself on the BLE. > hcitool lescan LE Scan ... C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 TT214H BlueFrog > HCI Event: LE Meta Event (0x3e) plen 43 #8 [hci0] 8.466202 LE Advertising Report (0x02) Num reports: 1 Event type: Scan response - SCAN_RSP (0x04) Address type: Random (0x01) Address: C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 (Static) Data length: 31 Company: Ingenieur-Systemgruppe Zahn GmbH (171) Data: aa050603d73a080402005836443501c00000000000000000000000 RSSI: -78 dBm (0xb2) And further more we can also look for the services and characteristics via the gatttool. > gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --services -t random attr handle = 0x0001, end grp handle = 0x0007 uuid: 00001800-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb attr handle = 0x0008, end grp handle = 0x0008 uuid: 00001801-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb attr handle = 0x0009, end grp handle = 0x0033 uuid: 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 attr handle = 0x0034, end grp handle = 0x003a uuid: 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 attr handle = 0x003b, end grp handle = 0xffff uuid: 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 > gatttool -b C9:26:E8:4B:72:02 --characteristics -t random handle = 0x0002, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0003, uuid = 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x0004, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0005, uuid = 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x0006, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0007, uuid = 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb handle = 0x000a, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x000b, uuid = 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x000d, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x000e, uuid = 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0010, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0011, uuid = 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0013, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0014, uuid = 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0016, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0017, uuid = 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0019, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001a, uuid = 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x001c, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x001d, uuid = 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x001f, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0020, uuid = 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0022, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0023, uuid = 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0025, char properties = 0x0a, char value handle = 0x0026, uuid = 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0028, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0029, uuid = 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x002b, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002c, uuid = 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x002e, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x002f, uuid = 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0031, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0032, uuid = 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0035, char properties = 0x02, char value handle = 0x0036, uuid = 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x0038, char properties = 0x08, char value handle = 0x0039, uuid = 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 handle = 0x003c, char properties = 0x04, char value handle = 0x003d, uuid = 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 handle = 0x003e, char properties = 0x18, char value handle = 0x003f, uuid = 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Bluetooth Services and Characteristics service table start end uuid name   0x0001 0x0007 0x1800 Generic Access Profile   0x0008 0x0008 0x1801 Generic Attribute Profile   0x0009 0x0033 5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710     0x0034 0x003a 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710     0X003b 0xffff 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123     Generic Access Profile (GAP) 0x0001 .. 0x0007 handle value handle properties uuid description 0x0002 0x0003 RW (0xa) 00002a00-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   0x0004 0x0005 R (0x2) 00002a01-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   0x0006 0x0007 R (0x2) 00002a04-0000-1000-8000-00805f9b34fb   5a401523-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0009 .. 0x0033a handle value handle properties uuid description 0x000a 0x000b R (0x2) 5a401524-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Machine Status 0x000d 0x000e W (0x8) 5a401525-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Start 0x0010 0x0011 W (0x8) 5a401529-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control 0x0013 0x0014 W (0x8) 5a401528-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Update Product Progress 0x0016 0x0017 RW (0xa) 5a401530-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Product Progress 0x0019 0x001a R (0x2) 5a401527-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 About 0x001c 0x001d R (0x2) 5a401531-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x001f 0x0020 RW (0xa) 5a401532-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0022 0x0023 RW (0xa) 5a401535-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0025 0x0026 RW (0xa) 5a401533-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics command 0x0028 0x0029 R (0x2) 5a401534-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Statistics data 0x002b 0x002c R (0x2) 5a401536-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x002e 0x002f R (0x2) 5a401537-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0031 0x0032 R (0x2) 5a401538-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 Service Control Response 5a401623-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710 0x0034 .. 0x003a handle value handle properties uuid description 0x0035 0x0036 R (0x2) 5a401624-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   0x0038 0x0039 W (0x8) 5a401625-ab2e-2548-c435-08c300000710   Nordic DFU 00001530-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 0x003b .. 0xffff handle value handle properties uuid description 0x003c 0x003d W- (0x4) 00001532-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_PACKET_CHARACTERISTI 0x003e 0x003f W N (0x18) 00001531-1212-efde-1523-785feabcd123 Nordic DFU_CONTROL_POINT_CHARACTERISTIC R means read W mean write with response W- means write without response N means notification Additional sources [1] https://www.thomas-electronic-online-shop.de/JURA-Smart-Connect [2] https://forum.fhem.de/index.php?topic=76957.0 [3] https://community.home-assistant.io/t/control-your-jura-coffee-machine/26604 [4] https://gitlab.com/Blueforcer/HA2JURA/snippets/1674496 [5] https://github.com/hn/jura-coffee-machine [6] https://infocenter.nordicsemi.com/index.jsp?topic=%2Fcom.nordic.infocenter.sdk5.v15.3.0%2Flib_dfu_transport_ble.html [Less]
Posted about 2 years ago
ramips mt7628nn 4 MB flash 32 MB Memory
Posted about 2 years ago
I joined the MirageOS retreat in March 2019. It's an 1 week event in Marrakech, Marocco. It's a real nice house in the old city of Marrakech, the medina. The event itself doesn't have much structure than a morning meeting and sometimes talks in the ... [More] evening. MirageOS is unikernel written in OCaml. MirageOS can run ontop of many backends, e.g. Unix process or xen, kvm, bhyve. This retreat I took care of the Internet uplink. We had a slow and leaky 4MBit ADSL line from Marocco Telecom which we used as backup, while using LTE as main uplink. We used first imwi as provider. But imwi changes the IPs quites often and the implementation in OpenWrt uqmi does not follow the IP changes, which resulted in a stale LTE connection. Imwi is also filtering all UDP DNS queries, except those going to their own servers. We then switched to Orange as provider, because someone had a card available. Orange was fast enough, pretty stable 5MBit up&down. We consumed roughly 20 GB a day. This brought us the nice daily ritual, a walk to a small and nice mobile shop in the medina. 1 GB cost 10 Dh (1 Euro). Our router, an APU2, runs OpenWrt, but we disabled DNS & DHCP and ran these services on a seperate APU using MirageOS. Even I'm not such familiar with OCaml and functional languages, I tried to fix a bug in the DHCP Server implementation PR#97. It worked for me, however after deploying it, it turned out, it only worked for me, I broke it for everybody else ;). This motivated me to start looking on TTCN-3, a ETSI language to test network protocols. Later together with Hannes, we fixed the DHCP for real. Adding some TTCN-3 tests and create a simple base is still on my TODO. Another really nice OCaml service on side was a learn-ocaml instance. An interactive teaching web application for beginners and advances OCaml programmers including an annotate OCaml compiler. Sadly there is no instance in the internet yet, as the projects is not ready for release. While there I also worked a lot on reproducible builds for OpenWrt. I fixed 2 packages. All OpenWrt base packages are 100 % reproducible. Thanks to Daniel Golle, OpenWrt images can be cryptographically signed. This signature must be removed before looking for differences, this is also done in the reproducible builds setup for OpenWrt. 100% of ar71xx images are reproducible and 98% of ramips. The remaining 2% are also signature problems, but these signatures are in the middle instead of the end of the image. I also found the time to integrate my package index parser into reproducible builds. It's much easier to just parse two packages list, than looking on the all package files to determine if they are reproducible or not. The package index files also contain metadata of the packages which it inserts into the reproducible builds database. Some people from the QubesOS projects joined the retreat. For example there is a MirageOS firewall which replaces the QubesOS own one. There is also a Pong game, which can run as QubesOS-vm. Thanks to the QubesOS people for their help on my problems with disposable vms. Furthermore I brought a beaglebone black with me to investigate bugs reported for that platform. While looking at it, I found out the last release of OpenWrt (18.06.2) doesn't work on this board (fs: squashfs), while master works. I also fixed builds issues with u-boot in OpenWrt for the beaglebone black when using a modern toolchain. Since we used LTE as uplink, we wanted to know how much of our data volume was consumed. OpenWrt might have statistics, but those are stored only in memory and not saved anywhere. I didn't looked for any OpenWrt packages which fixes this problem, because the provider (Orange) is supporting a USSD code to retrieve the remaining volume. What is USSD? USSD stands for Unstructured Supplementary Service Data. It's used on mobile phones to retrieve balance, your phone number, your IMEI, [..]. Most people have used them. Take your phone, open the phone application and call *#06#, it will return your phone unique identifier (IMEI). While SMS is a store-and-forward scheme, like email. USSD is real time message protocol, similiar to a TCP connection. The USSD codes are simple, do a request, get a response. Done. But Orange implemented a menu via USSD. So the USSD session will look like: Request, Response, Choose Your Menu, Response, Go Back, Choose different Point. I've started writing USSD support for libqmi. Simple USSD codes can be requested and decoded, but not menus with user input. And the biggest problem is: OpenWrt doesn't support USSD at all. Not even the simple ones. [Less]
Posted about 3 years ago
Sometimes, when I'm not directly around or I forgot to put the powersupply into my laptop. My laptop runs into the critical power action. Because I'm using upowerd, my machine try to does this: HibernateSuspend (fails) Hibernate (fails) PowerOff ... [More] Great! My machine shuts down, in the middle of doing something. It would take 2 minutes to get a powersupply, but too late!! But there might be a solution for this: Suspend. My machine can survive more than 1 hour in suspend with this low battery. It would help me NOT loosing my current unsaved work. After looking into the upowerd, it's just a 1 line code change to allow this. It is not a good default, but there are people who like to use this. But .. upowerd doesn't like. They not even want to allow the user to take this option. Indepentent that I agree, this shouldn't be the default. We're discussing this issue for years. Without any solution. Upowerd want to decide what users should do with there laptop and what not. Discussion Bugtracker How to resolve it? [Less]
Posted almost 4 years ago
From time to time you need to test things with the old image. But how do you test thing when the original build environment is lost and you want to test sysuprade against this old release (actually 12.09). First you've to create a flashdump of the ... [More] firmware paritition. # grep firmware /proc/mtd mtd5: 003d0000 00010000 "firmware" # ssh root@192.168.1.1 dd if=/dev/mtd5 > /tmp/firmware_backup Afterwards you can use binwalk to get the actual offsets of the different parts inside. # binwalk /tmp/firmware_backup DECIMAL HEXADECIMAL DESCRIPTION -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 512 0x200 LZMA compressed data, properties: 0x6D, dictionary size: 8388608 bytes, uncompressed size: 2813832 bytes 930352 0xE3230 Squashfs filesystem, little endian, version 4.0, compression:xz, size: 2194094 bytes, 728 inodes, blocksize: 262144 bytes, created: 2014-03-05 14:58:48 3145728 0x300000 JFFS2 filesystem, big endian So sysupgrade images for ar71xx is still using the (old) layout of ---------- |KERNEL | ---------- |squashfs| ---------- |jffs2 | ---------- While a sysupgrade image contains for those platforms: -------------- |KERNEL | -------------- |squashfs | -------------- |jffs2-dummy | -------------- So we will split-off the jffs2 Part and replace it with jffs2. # dd if=/tmp/firwmare_backup bs=3145728 count=1 of=/tmp/sysupgrade.img Next we add this jffs2-dummy by using the same tool LEDE is using it: # /home/lynxis/lede/staging_dir/host/bin/padjffs2 /tmp/sysupgrade.img 64 The 64 means the padding size in kb. It's important to choose the right one, but for most devices this is 64k at least for ar71xx. ssh root@192.168.1.1 dd if=/dev/mtd5 > /tmp/firmware_backup binwalk /tmp/firmware_backup dd if=/tmp/firwmare_backup bs=3145728 count=1 of=/tmp/sysupgrade.img /home/lynxis/lede/staging_dir/host/bin/padjffs2 /tmp/sysupgrade.img 64 [Less]
Posted almost 4 years ago
A friend gave me the his x1 carbon gen1 some time ago. The x1 carbon is little bit different from other Thinkpad because it's a combination of a Thinkpad and a Ultrabook. It has a Trackpoint (and even Trackpoint buttons). It has soldered memory ... [More] (only Elpida memory is support atm). It has Full-HD. (missed that on x2xx). Looking under the hood. The x1 carbon gen1 look very likely as x230. [Less]